Testosterone Acetate4_

 

Description

 

1. evobupivacaine hydrochloride is a sodium channel blocker used as a long-acting local anaesthetic for epidural anesthesia. Levobupivacaine is the (S)-isomer of bupivacaine, with efficacy similar to that of bupivacaine with a reduced risk of cardiotoxicity.

 

2. he hydrochloride salt of levobupivacaine, an amide derivative with anesthetic property. Levobupivacaine reversibly binds voltage-gated sodium channels to modulate ionic flux and prevent the initiation and transmission of nerve impulses (stabilizing neuronal membrane), thereby resulting in analgesia and anesthesia. In comparison with racemic bupivacaine, levobupivacaine is associated with less vasodilation and has a longer duration of action. Check for active clinical trials using this agent.

Quick Detail
Levobupivacaine Hydrochloride
Assay: 99.5%
CAS: 27262-48-2
Grade Standard: UPS/BP
Export Markets: Global
Packing: Different Kinds of Special Packing Methods.
Origin: China
Appearance: White crystalline powder
Package: According to customer requirements for packaging

 

Application

 

Levobupivacaine is a local anaesthetic drug belonging to the amino amide group. It is the S-enantiomer of bupivacaine. Levobupivacaine hydrochloride is commonly marketed by Abbott under the trade name Chirocaine. Bupivacaine is an amide-type local anaesthetic. Although it blocks neuro transmission, its membrane stabilising action also affects the myocardium. This can cause fatal cardiotoxicity. As bupivacaine is widely used in surgery and obstetrics, attempts have been made to develop a safer long-acting local anaesthetic.

The bupivacaine molecule is a racemic compound. Levobupivacaine is the S-enantiomer of bupivacaine and is thought to have less cardiotoxic potential than the R-enantiomer. The pharmacokinetic parameters of levobupivacaine are similar to those of bupivacaine.

Levobupivacaine has been studied in surgical anaesthesia and for pain management. It can be used for local infiltration, epidural, intrathecal and peripheral nerve blocks. For epidural analgesia it can be given with clonidine. Double-blind comparisons of levobupivacaine and bupivacaine show that their anaesthetic effects are similar.
Storage

-Keep the drug away from direct sunlight, heat and moisture.
-Do not let the drug at the sight and reach of children.

Principles of pharmacy

Levobupivacaine hydrochloride is an amide local anesthetic. Local anesthetics block the generation and conduction of nerve stimulation by increasing the threshold of electrical stimulation, slowing the propagation of nerve stimulation and reducing the rate of action potential. Often, the anesthesia is related to the diameter of the nerve fibers, myelination and conduction velocity. Clinically, the loss of neurological function is 1) pain, 2) warm sensation, 3) tactile sensation, 4) ontology sensation and positional sensation, 5) skeletal muscle strength.
Instructions for use

 

Indications

 

Mainly used for surgical epidural anesthesia.

 

Dosage

 

Adults for nerve block or infiltration anesthesia, a maximum dose of 150mg. Concentration of the preparation of the drug: surgical epidural block: 0.5% ~ 0.75% 10 ~ 20ml 50 ~ 150mg moderate to all exercise block.

 

Adverse reactions

 

Such as low blood pressure, nausea, postoperative pain, fever, vomiting, anemia, itching, pain, headache, constipation, dizziness, fetal distress, etc., occasional asthma, edema, less exercise, no muscle contraction, cramps, tremor, syncope, Dyspnea, bronchial spasm, dyspnea, pulmonary edema, respiratory insufficiency, sweating, skin discoloration, and so on.

Taboo

1, liver, kidney dysfunction, hypoproteinemia, allergic to the goods or allergies to amide local anesthetic disabled.

 

2, if the goods and hydrochloric acid adrenaline mixed use, banned in toxic goiter, severe heart disease or taking tricyclic antidepressants and other patients.

 

3, this product is not used for subarachnoid block, so far no clinical application of information.

 

4, this product is not used for children under 12 years of age, its safety to be confirmed.
Precautions

 

1, the use of not excessive, excessive can lead to hypotension, convulsions, cardiac arrest, respiratory depression and convulsions.

 

2, if there is severe hypotension or bradycardia, intravenous injection of ephedrine or atropine.

 

3, such as muscle tremor, spasm can be given to barbiturate drugs.

 

4, given the local anesthesia injection should be closely observed after the cardiovascular, respiratory changes and the patient’s state of consciousness, the patient may be the following symptoms may be signs of poisoning: restlessness, anxiety, incoherent, numbness and numbness, metallic odor, tinnitus , Dizziness, blurred vision, muscle tremors, depression or drowsiness.

 

5, amide local anesthetic, such as the goods are metabolized by the liver, therefore, given these drugs, especially when multi-dose administration, the patients with liver disease should be careful.

 

6, the goods should not be intravenous injection, so in the injection of medication, back pumping blood to confirm that blood is not necessary intravaginal injection.

 

7, the left bupivacaine injection solution is not used for obstetric uterine tissue block anesthesia. Because there is no information to support this use and there is a risk of bradycardia or death.

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